A new malicious attack has been detected, distributing a form of very dangerous malware which researchers dubbed Tonedeaf. The Tonedeaf malware is in fact a sophisticated backdoor which communicates with a specific command and control server via HTTP GET and POST requests.
The Tonedeaf backdoor is capable of collecting system information, uploading and downloading files, and arbitrary shell command execution, FireEye researchers explained in their report.
The Tonedeaf malware campaign is operated by a group known as APT34, an Iran-linked APT group that has been active since at least 2014. The group has been known to target organizations in the financial, government, energy, telecommunication, and chemical sectors, primarily in the United States and Middle Eastern territories.
According to the report, APT34 is relying heavily on their PowerShell development capabilities but is also trying to include Golang, a statically typed, compiled programming language designed at Google.
|Short Description||The Tonedeaf backdoor is capable of collecting system information, uploading and downloading files, and arbitrary shell command execution.|
|Distribution Method||A phishing campaign spread on LinkedIn.|
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|User Experience||Join Our Forum to Discuss Tonedeaf Backdoor.|
Tonedeaf Backdoor – Distribution Techniques
The malware has been spread via a phishing campaign conducted by APT34. The phishing messages are made to look like they have been sent by a member of Cambridge University, and have been spread on LinkedIn to deliver the malicious payload. More specifically, in this campaign, fake profiles got in contact with targeted victims and asked them to open a malicious Excel file named ERFT-Details.xls that played the role of a dropper.
The messages sent over LinkedIn looked like messages from the “Research Staff at University of Cambridge” with their topic involving resumes for potential job opportunities. In fact, this technique is not unique and has been observed in multiple campaigns. For example, a phishing scam from 2017 was trying to trick users of the professional network to upload their CVs. Scammers were sending emails about alleged “job openings for active LinkedIn users”. https://sensorstechforum.com/job-openings-active-linkedin-users-phishing-scam-detected/
Tonedeaf Backdoor – Malicious Capabilities
Tonedeaf is a backdoor that communicates with a command and control server via HTTP GET and POST requests. The malware is capable of collecting system information, uploading and downloading files, and arbitrary shell command execution.
When executed, the Tonedeaf backdoor writes encrypted data to two temporary files – temp.txt and temp2.txt – within the same directory of its execution.
FireEye has identified offlineearthquake[.]com as a potential command and control domain of the operation.
Requests to the domain offlineearthquake[.]com could be carried out in different forms, in accordance with the malware’s stage of installation and purpose. In addition, Tonedeaf can retrieve the system and current user names, which are used to create a three-character sys_id, the report noted. This value is used in subsequent requests, most probably done to track infected target activity.
It is noteworthy that the Tonedeaf backdoor is not the only malware being distributed in this campaign, as FireEye detected “two additional new malware families hosted at this domain, ValueVault and Longwatch”. The researchers also identified a variant of Pickpocket, a browser credential-theft tool which was hosted on the command and control server.
What is ValueVault? A Golang-compiled version of the Windows Vault Password Dumper browser credential theft tool developed by Massimiliano Montoro, the developer of Cain & Abel. The tool has the same functionality as the original tool, and allows the threat actor to extract and view credentials stored in the Windows Vault. The tool also employs Windows PowerShell to extract browser history to match browser passwords with visited websites.
What is Longwatch? LongWatch is a keylogger that outputs keystrokes to a log.txt file in the Windows temp folder.
What is Pickpocket? It is a credential theft tool that dumps the victim’s website login credentials from several browsers (Chrome, Firefox, and IE) to a file.
The Tonedeaf backdoor is currently targeting organizations in the following sectors – energy and utilities, government, and oil and gas. However, the backdoor may also be utilized in large-scale campaigns, so protecting the operating system against such threats is highly advisable.
- Guide 1: How to Remove Tonedeaf Backdoor from Windows.
- Guide 2: Get rid of Tonedeaf Backdoor from Mac OS X.
- Guide 3: Remove Tonedeaf Backdoor from Google Chrome.
- Guide 4: Erase Tonedeaf Backdoor from Mozilla Firefox.
- Guide 5: Uninstall Tonedeaf Backdoor from Microsoft Edge.
- Guide 6: Remove Tonedeaf Backdoor from Safari.
- Guide 7: Eliminate Tonedeaf Backdoor from Internet Explorer.
How to Remove Tonedeaf Backdoor from Windows.
Step 1: Boot Your PC In Safe Mode to isolate and remove Tonedeaf Backdoor
Step 2: Uninstall Tonedeaf Backdoor and related software from Windows
Here is a method in few easy steps that should be able to uninstall most programs. No matter if you are using Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista or XP, those steps will get the job done. Dragging the program or its folder to the recycle bin can be a very bad decision. If you do that, bits and pieces of the program are left behind, and that can lead to unstable work of your PC, errors with the file type associations and other unpleasant activities. The proper way to get a program off your computer is to Uninstall it.
Step 3: Clean any registries, created by Tonedeaf Backdoor on your computer.
The usually targeted registries of Windows machines are the following:
You can access them by opening the Windows registry editor and deleting any values, created by Tonedeaf Backdoor there. This can happen by following the steps underneath:
Get rid of Tonedeaf Backdoor from Mac OS X.
Step 1: Uninstall Tonedeaf Backdoor and remove related files and objects
1. Hit the ⇧+⌘+U keys to open Utilities. Another way is to click on “Go” and then click “Utilities”, like the image below shows:
- Go to Finder.
- In the search bar type the name of the app that you want to remove.
- Above the search bar change the two drop down menus to “System Files” and “Are Included” so that you can see all of the files associated with the application you want to remove. Bear in mind that some of the files may not be related to the app so be very careful which files you delete.
- If all of the files are related, hold the ⌘+A buttons to select them and then drive them to “Trash”.
In case you cannot remove Tonedeaf Backdoor via Step 1 above:
In case you cannot find the virus files and objects in your Applications or other places we have shown above, you can manually look for them in the Libraries of your Mac. But before doing this, please read the disclaimer below:
You can repeat the same procedure with the following other Library directories:
Tip: ~ is there on purpose, because it leads to more LaunchAgents.
Step 2: Scan for and remove Tonedeaf Backdoor files from your Mac
When you are facing problems on your Mac as a result of unwanted scripts and programs such as Tonedeaf Backdoor, the recommended way of eliminating the threat is by using an anti-malware program. SpyHunter for Mac offers advanced security features along with other modules that will improve your Mac’s security and protect it in the future.
Remove Tonedeaf Backdoor from Google Chrome.
Step 1: Start Google Chrome and open the drop menu
Step 2: Move the cursor over "Tools" and then from the extended menu choose "Extensions"
Step 3: From the opened "Extensions" menu locate the unwanted extension and click on its "Remove" button.
Step 4: After the extension is removed, restart Google Chrome by closing it from the red "X" button at the top right corner and start it again.
Erase Tonedeaf Backdoor from Mozilla Firefox.
Step 1: Start Mozilla Firefox. Open the menu window
Step 2: Select the "Add-ons" icon from the menu.
Step 3: Select the unwanted extension and click "Remove"
Step 4: After the extension is removed, restart Mozilla Firefox by closing it from the red "X" button at the top right corner and start it again.
Uninstall Tonedeaf Backdoor from Microsoft Edge.
Step 1: Start Edge browser.
Step 2: Open the drop menu by clicking on the icon at the top right corner.
Step 3: From the drop menu select "Extensions".
Step 4: Choose the suspected malicious extension you want to remove and then click on the gear icon.
Step 5: Remove the malicious extension by scrolling down and then clicking on Uninstall.
Remove Tonedeaf Backdoor from Safari.
Step 1: Start the Safari app.
Step 2: After hovering your mouse cursor to the top of the screen, click on the Safari text to open its drop down menu.
Step 3: From the menu, click on "Preferences".
Step 4: After that, select the 'Extensions' Tab.
Step 5: Click once on the extension you want to remove.
Step 6: Click 'Uninstall'.
A pop-up window will appear asking for confirmation to uninstall the extension. Select 'Uninstall' again, and the Tonedeaf Backdoor will be removed.
Eliminate Tonedeaf Backdoor from Internet Explorer.
Step 1: Start Internet Explorer.
Step 2: Click on the gear icon labeled 'Tools' to open the drop menu and select 'Manage Add-ons'
Step 3: In the 'Manage Add-ons' window.
Step 4: Select the extension you want to remove and then click 'Disable'. A pop-up window will appear to inform you that you are about to disable the selected extension, and some more add-ons might be disabled as well. Leave all the boxes checked, and click 'Disable'.
Step 5: After the unwanted extension has been removed, restart Internet Explorer by closing it from the red 'X' button located at the top right corner and start it again.