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Trojan Horse – What Is It?

What is a Trojan Horse?

Trojan horse is one of the most dangerous categories of malware. Trojans are created with the intention of taking over control of computers and allowing the hackers to spy on the users. They are otherwise known as RAT (remote access tool/trojan) and trojan horse viruses.

Over the years we have seen many different types of them — developed by both amateur programmers and highly experienced criminal collectives. This has resulted in complex attacks with a lot of Trojans that are targeted against both end users and companies.

By definition, a malware is categorised as a Trojan horse if it fulfils the main role – to infect a computer and allow hackers to take over control of the victim machines. This can be done by hooking up to system processes and manipulating them for access or via other common weaknesses in the user-installed applications or operating system as a whole.

Trojan horses have grown to be much more than simple spy tools, they may contain advanced functionality or be used to infect the computers with other malware. This is particularly useful when the Trojan has been configured to “prepare” the environment. Most recent examples of this category are well-known for making sure that modifications to the operating system have been made in order for the Trojan to run without interruption from it or security applications that might be installed.

Related: Astaroth Trojan Uses YouTube Channels to Hide Command and Control Servers

How Does a Trojan Horse Infect Computers?

There are several major infection methods that are used by hackers to install Trojans. An important factor to consider is that the deployment can take place via a several-stage delivery process. This is often done by using several mechanisms following a sequence of prescribed events.

A common strategy is to deploy small-sized scripts which will retrieve a second “stage”. It is often placed in a archived format or encrypted form. The script will unpack and place the files in system folders and other locations where it might not be scanned by anti-virus engines and other security services.

Trojans and related files can be uploaded to hacker-controlled sites or other places where a lot of users might search for data. Common sources may include any of the following:

  • Social Networks — The Trojan files can be posted on profiles, groups, chat rooms and pages. They can be of hacker-controlled profiles or hacked ones.
  • Web Portals and Landing Pages — The criminals can create landing pages, portals and fake search engines. This is especially useful when redirects scripts are implemented. When the users navigate to different elements of the pages the files can be downloaded by either clicking on links or interacting with content: scripts, pop-ups, banner and ads.
  • File-Sharing Networks — Trojan files can be easily uploaded either by themselves or in infected data to networks like BitTorrent and other software used to distribute files. They are a very popular outlet for spreading both pirate and legitimate files.
  • Shortened URLs — The hackers can easily include links leading to the Trojan horse infections in shortened addresses. They might use popular services to “mask” the exit URL address.

Many Trojan infections, however, happen when a carrier file is run by the end users. They have a much higher chance of infection as the users are much more likely to run them instead of standalone archives or executable files. Examples of such payload carriers can be macro-infected documents which can be of all popular file formats: presentations, text documents, databases and spreadsheets. When they are opened by the victims a prompt will be generated which will ask them to enable the built-in macros, the most popular reason which is quoted is that this is required in order to view the contents. The alternative is to create malicious application installers of popular software. This is done by taking the original versions from their official sources and adding in the necessary code.

Otherwise Trojan infections can be done by using direct attacks. They are coordinated and executed using hacker toolkits and complicated suites and can take be used against whole networks. The easiest way is to look for security weaknesses in the computers which can exploit to a Trojan installation.

The criminals will target unpatched software or badly configured ones — these are the easiest way to break into a given computer. Other campaigns can make use of brute force attacks wherein the credentials to certain services can be calculated and trialed to gain entry. The hackers may either use ready-made password list files or use an algorithm to generate them.

Among the easiest ways to deploy Trojans is to command previously installed malware to retrieve them. This is commonly done when ransomware viruses are considered, some of the well-known families are deliberately programmed to do so after the encryption phase has started working. This is done in order to monitor if the victims are going to pay the ransom decryption fee.

Related: Raccoon Infostealer Malware – Removal

What Happens After Trojan Horse Infects My Computer?

Trojan horse infections are primarily developed to take over the target computer devices however this is only the original dictionary definition. Nowadays Trojans are among the most complicated and damaging types of malware infections. While they have the main goal of remote controlling computers there are many other malicious actions that can be undertaken by it.

Commonly Trojans are designed with a modular codebase allowing them to start various components that can be built into them or downloaded and run when the hackers instruct them to do so. Depending on the way the virus is designed this can also happen automatically if the engine deems that the infected machine conforms to certain conditions. Typical Trojan virus activity can include the following:

  • Information Retrieval — The main engine can launch a data gathering command which may collect information that can be personally identifiable information or a report of the installed machine components. This is often done to generate an unique ID signature for each computer allowing the hackers to easily keep track of the number of infected devices. The gathering of such information may also be used for other crimes such as identity theft and financial abuse.
  • System Boot Options Changes — The Trojan can be programmed to manipulate the boot options and automatically start the malware when the computer is powered on. This can also prevent the users from accessing recovery menus. This can seriously hinder manual user recover methods.
  • System Configuration Manipulation — Trojans can edit the configuration of important system files and user settings. Depending on what exactly has been altered this can lead to data loss, unexpected errors and serious performance issues.
  • Persistent Installation — Malware of this category are often programmed to scan the infected systems for any installed security software. If they are detected then their engines can be disabled or entirely removed. This can act against the likes of virtual machine hosts, anti-virus programs, sandbox environments, firewalls and intrusion detection systems.

Trojans will typically operate by creating and maintaining a connection to a hacker-controlled server, at this point the hackers will be able to run the prescribed commands. Data can be transferred from the infected computers — not only individual files, but also supplementary data. Examples can be web browser information — it can be harvested for stored history, cookies and account passwords. Information can also be retrieved from the clipboard, some Trojans may also include keylogger functionality — the ability to monitor and record mouse movement and keyboard input.

How to Protect My Computer from Trojan Horse?

To a large extent there are numerous ways through which users can prevent some of the simpler Trojan viruses from their computers. This will work in cases where the Trojan horse viruses are delivered to the users via sites and email messages. Users should know that the majority of attacks are delivered via phishing tactics — the target victims will be scammed by the users to interact with email messages, clicking on sites and links or entering data in fields. Website phishing is very popular among all levels of experience — the simplest sites are merely badly made copies of commonly used services and company pages. More sophisticated ones can be hosted on almost the same sounding domains, incorporate security certificates and replicate the design and structure. To avoid being scamed always inspect the link URLs and make sure that they point exactly to the official and legitimate domain used by a given service. It is very easy for hackers to replace o’s with 0’s as some browsers and display resolutions might not clearly show the difference.

When it comes to email messages never open links and attachments that have been sent by unknown and untrusted people, companies or services. Also make sure to enable the file extensions view in your operating system to prevent the execution of double extensions. Phishing email messages can send out such files — they are usually of popular documents or archives. When they are placed on the system the double extension will hide executable code or other malware techniques.

Other general-purpose tips to prevent Trojan horse infection scenarios are the following:

  • Avoid Accepting Invites From Unknown People on Social Network — Generally hackers can automatically generate profiles that include all basic account necessities. They can be programmed to automatically send out Trojan-infected files.
  • Rely on Official Download Sources Only — Many Trojan data can be embedded in software patches, updates and add-ons which can be easily uploaded to fake portals and popular web communities. The hackers will likely use hacked or specially created profiles for this purpose.
  • Always Use A Reliable Security Suite — Having a simple anti-virus software nowadays is not enough. While definition updates and software stability is important there are a lot of threats that may still infect target users of different categories. This is the reason why we always recommend to use a specialized anti-malware solution in combination with anti-virus programs. This combination will ensure that a proper recovery following a security incident can be done.
  • Use Operating System Security Features When In Need — Trojan attacks can spread through the network, this is the reason why operating system developers have placed some basic network defense settings. They can be enabled by the users using the Settings menu and can vary from version to version. One of the most important example is the Work profile, a function which is used when laptop users are connecting their devices to Public or Work Wi-Fi networks. In this case network sharing will be switched off which will limit the infection potential of Trojans that have implemented a worm-like propagation.

The top advice to follow is to always be on guard! Trojan virus infections are among the most advances and computer criminals are constantly devising new infection tactics. Keep yourself updated on new malware, being informed is the best protection.

Martin Beltov

Martin graduated with a degree in Publishing from Sofia University. As a cyber security enthusiast he enjoys writing about the latest threats and mechanisms of intrusion.

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About the Research

The content we publish on SensorsTechForum.com, this how-to removal guide included, is the outcome of extensive research, hard work and our team’s devotion to help you remove the specific, adware-related problem, and restore your browser and computer system.

How did we conduct the research on ?

Please note that our research is based on independent investigation. We are in contact with independent security researchers, thanks to which we receive daily updates on the latest malware, adware, and browser hijacker definitions.
Furthermore, the research behind the threat is backed with VirusTotal https://www.virustotal.com/gui/home/upload.
To better understand this online threat, please refer to the following articles which provide knowledgeable details.


1.Browser Redirect – What Is It?
2.Adware Is Malicious, and It Uses Advanced Techniques to Infect
3.The Thin Red Line Between Potentially Unwanted Programs and Malware
4.The Pay-Per-Install Affiliate Business – Making Millions out of Adware
5.Malicious Firefox Extensions Installed by 455,000 Users Blocked Updates

How to Remove from Windows.

Step 1: Boot Your PC In Safe Mode to isolate and remove


Manual Removal Usually Takes Time and You Risk Damaging Your Files If Not Careful!
We Recommend To Scan Your PC with SpyHunter

Keep in mind, that SpyHunter’s scanner is only for malware detection. If SpyHunter detects malware on your PC, you will need to purchase SpyHunter's malware removal tool to remove the malware threats. Read our SpyHunter 5 review. Click on the corresponding links to check SpyHunter's EULA, Privacy Policy and Threat Assessment Criteria

1. Hold Windows key + R

2. The "Run" Window will appear. In it, type "msconfig" and click OK.

3. Go to the "Boot" tab. There select "Safe Boot" and then click "Apply" and "OK".
Tip: Make sure to reverse those changes by unticking Safe Boot after that, because your system will always boot in Safe Boot from now on.

4. When prompted, click on "Restart" to go into Safe Mode.

5. You can recognise Safe Mode by the words written on the corners of your screen.

Step 2: Uninstall and related software from Windows

Here is a method in few easy steps that should be able to uninstall most programs. No matter if you are using Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista or XP, those steps will get the job done. Dragging the program or its folder to the recycle bin can be a very bad decision. If you do that, bits and pieces of the program are left behind, and that can lead to unstable work of your PC, errors with the file type associations and other unpleasant activities. The proper way to get a program off your computer is to Uninstall it. To do that:

1. Hold the Windows Logo Button and "R" on your keyboard. A Pop-up window will appear.

2. In the field type in "appwiz.cpl" and press ENTER.

3. This will open a window with all the programs installed on the PC. Select the program that you want to remove, and press "Uninstall"
Follow the instructions above and you will successfully uninstall most programs.

Step 3: Clean any registries, created by on your computer.

The usually targeted registries of Windows machines are the following:

  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
  • HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
  • HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce

You can access them by opening the Windows registry editor and deleting any values, created by there. This can happen by following the steps underneath:

1. Open the Run Window again, type "regedit" and click OK.

2. When you open it, you can freely navigate to the Run and RunOnce keys, whose locations are shown above.

3. You can remove the value of the virus by right-clicking on it and removing it.

Tip: To find a virus-created value, you can right-click on it and click "Modify" to see which file it is set to run. If this is the virus file location, remove the value.

Before starting "Step 4", please boot back into Normal mode, in case you are currently in Safe Mode.
This will enable you to install and use SpyHunter 5 successfully.

Step 4: Scan for with SpyHunter Anti-Malware Tool

1. Click on the "Download" button to proceed to SpyHunter's download page.

It is recommended to run a scan before purchasing the full version of the software to make sure that the current version of the malware can be detected by SpyHunter. Click on the corresponding links to check SpyHunter's EULA, Privacy Policy and Threat Assessment Criteria.

2. After you have installed SpyHunter, wait for it to update automatically.


3. After the update process has finished, click on the 'Malware/PC Scan' tab. A new window will appear. Click on 'Start Scan'.


4. After SpyHunter has finished scanning your PC for any files of the associated threat and found them, you can try to get them removed automatically and permanently by clicking on the 'Next' button.


If any threats have been removed, it is highly recommended to restart your PC.

Video Removal Guide for (Windows).

Windows Mac OS X Google Chrome Mozilla Firefox Microsoft Edge Safari Internet Explorer Stop Push Pop-ups

Get rid of from Mac OS X.

Step 1: Uninstall and remove related files and objects

Manual Removal Usually Takes Time and You Risk Damaging Your Files If Not Careful!
We Recommend To Scan Your Mac with SpyHunter for Mac
Keep in mind, that SpyHunter for Mac needs to purchased to remove the malware threats. Click on the corresponding links to check SpyHunter’s EULA and Privacy Policy

1.Hit the ⇧+⌘+U keys to open Utilities. Another way is to click on “Go” and then click “Utilities”, like the image below shows:

2. Find Activity Monitor and double-click it:

3.In the Activity Monitor look for any suspicious processes, belonging or related to :

Tip: To quit a process completely, choose the “Force Quit” option.

4.Click on the "Go" button again, but this time select Applications. Another way is with the ⇧+⌘+A buttons.

5.In the Applications menu, look for any suspicious app or an app with a name, similar or identical to . If you find it, right-click on the app and select “Move to Trash”.

6: Select Accounts, after which click on the Login Items preference.

Your Mac will then show you a list of items that start automatically when you log in. Look for any suspicious apps identical or similar to . Check the app you want to stop from running automatically and then select on the Minus (“-“) icon to hide it.

7: Remove any left-over files that might be related to this threat manually by following the sub-steps below:

  • Go to Finder.
  • In the search bar type the name of the app that you want to remove.
  • Above the search bar change the two drop down menus to “System Files” and “Are Included” so that you can see all of the files associated with the application you want to remove. Bear in mind that some of the files may not be related to the app so be very careful which files you delete.
  • If all of the files are related, hold the ⌘+A buttons to select them and then drive them to “Trash”.

In case you cannot remove via Step 1 above:

In case you cannot find the virus files and objects in your Applications or other places we have shown above, you can manually look for them in the Libraries of your Mac. But before doing this, please read the disclaimer below:

Disclaimer! If you are about to tamper with Library files on Mac, be sure to know the name of the virus file, because if you delete the wrong file, it may cause irreversible damage to your MacOS. Continue on your own responsibility!

1: Click on "Go" and Then "Go to Folder" as shown underneath:

2: Type in "/Library/LauchAgents/" and click Ok:

3: Delete all of the virus files that have similar or the same name as . If you believe there is no such file, do not delete anything.

You can repeat the same procedure with the following other Library directories:

→ ~/Library/LaunchAgents

Tip: ~ is there on purpose, because it leads to more LaunchAgents.

Step 2: Scan for and remove files from your Mac

When you are facing problems on your Mac as a result of unwanted scripts and programs such as , the recommended way of eliminating the threat is by using an anti-malware program. SpyHunter for Mac offers advanced security features along with other modules that will improve your Mac’s security and protect it in the future.

Click the button below below to download SpyHunter for Mac and scan for :


SpyHunter for Mac

Video Removal Guide for (Mac)

Windows Mac OS X Google Chrome Mozilla Firefox Microsoft Edge Safari Internet Explorer Stop Push Pop-ups

Remove from Google Chrome.

Step 1: Start Google Chrome and open the drop menu

Step 2:Move the cursor over "Tools" and then from the extended menu choose "Extensions"

Step 3: From the opened "Extensions" menu locate the unwanted extension and click on its "Remove" button.

Step 4: After the extension is removed, restart Google Chrome by closing it from the red "X" button at the top right corner and start it again.

Windows Mac OS X Google Chrome Mozilla Firefox Microsoft Edge Safari Internet Explorer Stop Push Pop-ups

Erase from Mozilla Firefox.

Step 1: Start Mozilla Firefox. Open the menu window

Step 2: Select the "Add-ons" icon from the menu.

Step 3: Select the unwanted extension and click "Remove"

Step 4: After the extension is removed, restart Mozilla Firefox by closing it from the red "X" button at the top right corner and start it again.

Windows Mac OS X Google Chrome Mozilla Firefox Microsoft Edge Safari Internet Explorer Stop Push Pop-ups

Uninstall from Microsoft Edge.

Step 1: Start Edge browser.

Step 2: Open the drop menu by clicking on the icon at the top right corner.

Step 3: From the drop menu select "Extensions".

Step 4: Choose the suspected malicious extension you want to remove and then click on the gear icon.

Step 5: Remove the malicious extension by scrolling down and then clicking on Uninstall.

Windows Mac OS X Google Chrome Mozilla Firefox Microsoft Edge Safari Internet Explorer Stop Push Pop-ups

Remove from Safari.

Step 1: Start the Safari app.

Step 2: After hovering your mouse cursor to the top of the screen, click on the Safari text to open its drop down menu.

Step 3: From the menu, click on "Preferences".

stf-safari preferences

Step 4: After that, select the 'Extensions' Tab.


Step 5: Click once on the extension you want to remove.

Step 6: Click 'Uninstall'.

stf-safari uninstall

A pop-up window will appear asking for confirmation to uninstall the extension. Select 'Uninstall' again, and the will be removed.

How to Reset Safari
IMPORTANT: Before resetting Safari make sure you back up all your saved passwords within the browser in case you forget them.

Start Safari and then click on the gear leaver icon.

Click the Reset Safari button and you will reset the browser.

Windows Mac OS X Google Chrome Mozilla Firefox Microsoft Edge Safari Internet Explorer Stop Push Pop-ups

Eliminate from Internet Explorer.

Step 1: Start Internet Explorer.

Step 2: Click on the gear icon labeled 'Tools' to open the drop menu and select 'Manage Add-ons'

Step 3: In the 'Manage Add-ons' window.

Step 4: Select the extension you want to remove and then click 'Disable'. A pop-up window will appear to inform you that you are about to disable the selected extension, and some more add-ons might be disabled as well. Leave all the boxes checked, and click 'Disable'.

Step 5: After the unwanted extension has been removed, restart Internet Explorer by closing it from the red 'X' button located at the top right corner and start it again.

Remove Push Notifications caused by from Your Browsers.

Turn Off Push Notifications from Google Chrome

To disable any Push Notices from Google Chrome browser, please follow the steps below:

Step 1: Go to Settings in Chrome.


Step 2: In Settings, select “Advanced Settings”:

advanced settings

Step 3: Click “Content Settings”:

Content Settings

Step 4: Open “Notifications”:


Step 5: Click the three dots and choose Block, Edit or Remove options:

Block, Edit or Remove

Remove Push Notifications on Firefox

Step 1: Go to Firefox Options.


Step 2: Go to “Settings”, type “notifications” in the search bar and click "Settings":


Step 3: Click “Remove” on any site you wish notifications gone and click “Save Changes”

remove push notifications firefox

Stop Push Notifications on Opera

Step 1: In Opera, press ALT+P to go to Settings.


Step 2: In Setting search, type “Content” to go to Content Settings.

content settings

Step 3: Open Notifications:


Step 4: Do the same as you did with Google Chrome (explained below):

three dots

Eliminate Push Notifications on Safari

Step 1: Open Safari Preferences.


Step 2: Choose the domain from where you like push pop-ups gone and change to "Deny" from "Allow".


What is ?

The threat is adware or browser redirect virus. It may slow your computer down siginficantly and display advertisements. The main idea is for your information to likely get stolen or more ads to appear on your device.

The creators of such unwanted apps work with pay-per-click schemes to get your computer to visit risky or different types of websites that may generate them funds. This is why they do not even care what types of websites show up on the ads. This makes their unwanted software indirectly risky for your OS.

What are the symptoms of ?

There are several symptoms to look for when this particular threat and also unwanted apps in general are active:

Symptom #1: Your computer may become slow and has poor performance in general.

Symtpom #2: You have toolbars, add-ons or extensions on your web browsers that you don't remember adding.

Symptom #3: You see all types of ads, like ad-supported search results, pop-ups and redirects to randomly appear.

Symptom #4: You see installed apps on your Mac running automatically and you do not remember installing them.

Symptom #5: You see suspicious processes running in your Task Manager.

If you see one or more of those symptoms, then security experts reccomend that you check your computer for viruses.

What types of Unwanted Programs are there?

According to most malware researchers and cyber-security experts, the threats that can currently affect your Mac can be the following types:

  • Rogue Antivirus programs.
  • Adware.
  • Browser hijackers.
  • Clickers.
  • Fake optimizers.

What to do if I have a "virus" like ?

Do not panic! You can easily get rid of most adware or unwanted program threats by firstly isolating them and then removing them from your browser and computer. One reccomended way to do that is by using a reputable malware removal software that can take care of the removal automatically for you. There are many anti-malware apps out there that you can choose from. SpyHunter is one of the reccomended anti-malware apps, that can scan your computer for free and detect any viruses, tracking cookies and unwanted adware apps and eliminate them quickly. This saves time when compared to doing the removal manually.

How to secure my passwords and other data from ?

With few simple actions. First and foremost, it is imperative that you follow these steps:

Step 1: Find a safe computer and connect it to another network, not the one that your Mac was infected in.

Step 2: Change all of your passwords, starting from your e-mail passwords.

Step 3: Enable two-factor authentication for protection of your important accounts.

Step 4: Call your bank to change your credit card details (secret code, etc.) if you have saved your credit card for online shopping or have done online activiites with your card.

Step 5: Make sure to call your ISP (Internet provider or carrier) and ask them to change your IP address.

Step 6: Change your Wi-Fi password.

Step 7: (Optional): Make sure to scan all of the devices connected to your network for viruses and repeat these steps for them if they are affected.

Step 8: Install anti-malware software with real-time protection on every device you have.

Step 9: Try not to download software from sites you know nothing about and stay away from low-reputation websites in general.

If you follow these reccomendations, your network and all devices will become significantly more secure against any threats or information invasive software and be virus free and protected in the future too.

More tips you can find on our website, where you can also ask any questions and comment underneath the articles about your computer problems. We will try to respond as fast as possible.

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