Home > Ransomware > Remove Defray Ransomware (Glushkov) – Restore Data

Remove Defray Ransomware (Glushkov) – Restore Data

This article will help you to remove Defray ransomware completely. Follow the ransomware removal instructions given at the end.

Defray is a ransomware virus targeting healthcare and educational organizations. The cryptovirus was dubbed “Defray” by researchers from Proofpoint, who were the first to discover this malware. They named it after one of the C2 (Command and Control) servers related with the threat. To defray means to give money to pay for an expense, which is appropriate here, since a ransom sum of 5,000 US dollars is demanded as payment. The Defray virus stores its ransom note message inside two text files. The files are filled with instructions about paying the abovementioned ransom for supposedly restoring your files. Read on below to see how you could try to potentially restore some of your data.

Threat Summary

Name Defray
Type Ransomware, Cryptovirus
Short Description The Defray ransomware targets large organizations and encrypts their files and then displays a ransom message afterward, demanding 5,000 US dollars.
Symptoms The ransomware will encrypt files and put up a ransom note inside two text files.
Distribution Method Spam Emails, Email Attachments
Detection Tool See If Your System Has Been Affected by malware


Malware Removal Tool

User Experience Join Our Forum to Discuss Defray.
Data Recovery Tool Windows Data Recovery by Stellar Phoenix Notice! This product scans your drive sectors to recover lost files and it may not recover 100% of the encrypted files, but only few of them, depending on the situation and whether or not you have reformatted your drive.

Defray Ransomware (Glushkov) – Infection Spread

Defray ransomware could spread its infection with various methods. The most current spread method is via fake Microsoft Word documents. The documents are attached to spam e-mails which are cleverly crafted to appeal to specific organizations. The campaigns are thin and the messages that are used are custom. Below you can view two of the most common documents and how they look like from the inside:

Images Source: Proofpoint

Inside these Microsoft Word file there is an embedded executable and according to Proofpoint – “an OLE packager shell object”. Clicking on the executable will trigger the payload dropper and consequently, execute the Defray ransomware. Some researchers have uploaded a malware sample on the VirusTotal service. You can see the detections of different security software there:

Defray ransomware might also distribute its payload file with other methods in the future. Refrain from opening files or clicking on them before scanning them with a security program. You should also check their size and signature for anything that seems suspicious. You should read the ransomware prevention tips thread in the forum.

Defray Ransomware (Glushkov) – Technical Overview

Defray is how Proofpoint researchers dubbed a ransomware virus that its own developers didn’t want to name. The name comes from one of the C2 (Command and Control) servers associated with the virus, specifically “defrayable-listings”. The malware encrypts files and extorts you to pay a ransom to supposedly recover them. For the moment organizations related to healthcare and education have been targeted as well as one big aquarium. The attacks are mostly targeting the United Kingdom and America.

Defray ransomware might make entries in the Windows Registry to achieve persistence, and could launch or repress processes in a Windows environment. Such entries are typically designed in a way to launch the virus automatically with each start of the Windows Operating System.

The ransom note can be previewed below, in the following screenshot:

The message is placed inside two files:

  • FILES.txt
  • HELP.txt

Their content reads the following:

Don’t panic, read this and contact someone from IT department.
Your computer has been infected with a virus known as ransomware.
All files including your personal or business documents, backups and projects are encrypted.
Encryption is very sophisticated and without paying a ransom you won’t get your files back.
You could be advised not to pay, but you should anyway get in touch with us.
Ransom value for your files is 5000$ to be paid in digital currency called Bitcoin.
If you have questions, write us.
If you have doubts, write us.
If you want to negotiate, write us.
If you want to make sure we can get your files back, write us.


In case we don’t respond to an email within one day, download application called BitMessage and reach to us for the fastest response.
BitMessage BM-2cVPRqFb5ZRaMuYdryqxsMNxFMudibvnY6


To someone from IT department

This is custom developed ransomware, decrypter won’t be made by an antivirus company. This one doesn’t even have a name. It uses AES-256 for encrypting files, RSA-2048 for storing encrypted AES-256 password and SHA-2 for keeping the encrypted file integrity. It’s written in C++ and have passed many quality assurance tests. To prevent this next time use offline backups.


As seen above, the following three e-mails have been given for contacting the cybercriminals:

  • glushkov@protonmail.ch
  • glushkov®tutanota.de
  • igor.glushkov.83@mail.ru

From these e-mails some researchers also refer to the cryptovirus as “Glushkov” ransomware.

The note of the Defray ransomware states that data is encrypted. You are demanded to pay 5,000 US dollars in the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. However, you should NOT under any circumstances pay the ransom sum. Your data may not get restored, and nobody could give you a guarantee for that. Furthermore, giving money to cybercriminals will most likely motivate them to create more ransomware viruses or do other criminal activities.

Defray Ransomware (Glushkov) – Encryption Process

The encryption process of the Defray ransomware is seems to be using a custom structure. According to the ransom note, the utilized encryption sequence is the following:

“AES-256 is used for encrypting the files, RSA-2048 for storing encrypted AES-256 password and SHA-2 for keeping the encrypted file integrity.”

The targeted extensions of files which are sought to get encrypted are listed right down here:

→.001, .3ds, .7zip, .MDF, .NRG, .PBF, .SQLITE, .SQLITE2, .SQLITE3, .SQLITEDB, .SVG, .UIF, .WMF, .abr, .accdb, .afi, .arw, .asm, .bkf, .c4d, .cab, .cbm, .cbu, .class, .cls, .cpp, .cr2, .crw, .csh, .csv, .dat, .dbx, .dcr, .dgn, .djvu, .dng, .doc, .docm, .docx, .dwfx, .dwg, .dxf, .exe, .fla, .fpx, .gdb, .gho, .ghs, .hdd, .html, .iso, .iv2i, .java, .key, .lcf, .lnk, .matlab, .max, .mdb, .mdi, .mrbak, .mrimg, .mrw, .nef, .odg, .ofx, .orf, .ova, .ovf, .pbd, .pcd, .pdf, .php, .pps, .ppsx, .ppt, .pptx, .pqi, .prn, .psb, .psd, .pst, .ptx, .pvm, .pzl, .qfx, .qif, .r00, .raf, .rar, .raw, .reg, .rw2, .s3db, .skp, .spf, .spi, .sql, .sqlite-journal, .stl, .sup, .swift, .tib, .txf, .u3d, .v2i, .vcd, .vcf, .vdi, .vhd, .vmdk, .vmem, .vmwarevm, .vmx, .vsdx, .wallet, .win, .xls, .xlsm, .xlsx, .zip

The Defray cryptovirus is set to disable startup recovery. Also, it erases all the Shadow Volume Copies from the Windows operating system with the help of the following command:

→vssadmin.exe delete shadows /all /Quiet

The above-stated command is executed and that makes the encryption process even more efficient. That is due to the fact that the command eliminates one of the prominent ways to restore your data. If your computer device was infected with this ransomware and your files are locked, read on through to find out how you could potentially recover your files.

Remove Defray Ransomware (Glushkov) and Restore Data

If your computer got infected with the Defray ransomware virus, you should have a bit of experience in removing malware. You should get rid of this ransomware as quickly as possible before it can have the chance to spread further and infect other computers. You should remove the ransomware and follow the step-by-step instructions guide provided below.

Berta Bilbao

Berta is a dedicated malware researcher, dreaming for a more secure cyber space. Her fascination with IT security began a few years ago when a malware locked her out of her own computer.

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Attention! SensorsTechForum strongly recommends that all malware victims should look for assistance only by reputable sources. Many guides out there claim to offer free recovery and decryption for files encrypted by ransomware viruses. Be advised that some of them may only be after your money.

As a site that has been dedicated to providing free removal instructions for ransomware and malware since 2014, SensorsTechForum’s recommendation is to only pay attention to trustworthy sources.

How to recognize trustworthy sources:

  • Always check "About Us" web page.
  • Profile of the content creator.
  • Make sure that real people are behind the site and not fake names and profiles.
  • Verify Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter personal profiles.


with Anti-Malware
We recommend you to download SpyHunter and run free scan to remove all virus files on your PC. This saves you hours of time and effort compared to doing the removal yourself.
SpyHunter 5 free remover allows you, subject to a 48-hour waiting period, one remediation and removal for results found. Read EULA and Privacy Policy

Windows Mac OS X

How to Remove Defray from Windows.

Step 1: Boot Your PC In Safe Mode to isolate and remove Defray


Manual Removal Usually Takes Time and You Risk Damaging Your Files If Not Careful!
We Recommend To Scan Your PC with SpyHunter

Keep in mind, that SpyHunter’s scanner is only for malware detection. If SpyHunter detects malware on your PC, you will need to purchase SpyHunter's malware removal tool to remove the malware threats. Read our SpyHunter 5 review. Click on the corresponding links to check SpyHunter's EULA, Privacy Policy and Threat Assessment Criteria

1. Hold Windows key() + R

2. The "Run" Window will appear. In it, type "msconfig" and click OK.

3. Go to the "Boot" tab. There select "Safe Boot" and then click "Apply" and "OK".
Tip: Make sure to reverse those changes by unticking Safe Boot after that, because your system will always boot in Safe Boot from now on.

4. When prompted, click on "Restart" to go into Safe Mode.

5. You can recognise Safe Mode by the words written on the corners of your screen.

Step 2: Uninstall Defray and related software from Windows

Here is a method in few easy steps that should be able to uninstall most programs. No matter if you are using Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista or XP, those steps will get the job done. Dragging the program or its folder to the recycle bin can be a very bad decision. If you do that, bits and pieces of the program are left behind, and that can lead to unstable work of your PC, errors with the file type associations and other unpleasant activities. The proper way to get a program off your computer is to Uninstall it. To do that:

1. Hold the Windows Logo Button and "R" on your keyboard. A Pop-up window will appear.

2. In the field type in "appwiz.cpl" and press ENTER.

3. This will open a window with all the programs installed on the PC. Select the program that you want to remove, and press "Uninstall"
Follow the instructions above and you will successfully uninstall most programs.

Step 3: Clean any registries, created by Defray on your computer.

The usually targeted registries of Windows machines are the following:

  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
  • HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
  • HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce

You can access them by opening the Windows registry editor and deleting any values, created by Defray there. This can happen by following the steps underneath:

1. Open the Run Window again, type "regedit" and click OK.

2. When you open it, you can freely navigate to the Run and RunOnce keys, whose locations are shown above.

3. You can remove the value of the virus by right-clicking on it and removing it.
Tip: To find a virus-created value, you can right-click on it and click "Modify" to see which file it is set to run. If this is the virus file location, remove the value.

Before starting "Step 4", please boot back into Normal mode, in case you are currently in Safe Mode.
This will enable you to install and use SpyHunter 5 successfully.

Step 4: Scan for Defray with SpyHunter Anti-Malware Tool

1. Click on the "Download" button to proceed to SpyHunter's download page.

It is recommended to run a scan before purchasing the full version of the software to make sure that the current version of the malware can be detected by SpyHunter. Click on the corresponding links to check SpyHunter's EULA, Privacy Policy and Threat Assessment Criteria.

2. After you have installed SpyHunter, wait for it to update automatically.


3. After the update process has finished, click on the 'Malware/PC Scan' tab. A new window will appear. Click on 'Start Scan'.


4. After SpyHunter has finished scanning your PC for any files of the associated threat and found them, you can try to get them removed automatically and permanently by clicking on the 'Next' button.


If any threats have been removed, it is highly recommended to restart your PC.

Step 5 (Optional): Try to Restore Files Encrypted by Defray.

Ransomware infections and Defray aim to encrypt your files using an encryption algorithm which may be very difficult to decrypt. This is why we have suggested a data recovery method that may help you go around direct decryption and try to restore your files. Bear in mind that this method may not be 100% effective but may also help you a little or a lot in different situations.

1. Download the reccomended Data Recovery software by clicking on the link underneath:

Simply click on the link and on the website menus on top, choose Data Recovery - Data Recovery Wizard for Windows or Mac (depending on your OS), and then download and run the tool.

Windows Mac OS X

Get rid of Defray from Mac OS X.

Step 1: Uninstall Defray and remove related files and objects

Manual Removal Usually Takes Time and You Risk Damaging Your Files If Not Careful!
We Recommend To Scan Your Mac with SpyHunter for Mac
Keep in mind, that SpyHunter for Mac needs to purchased to remove the malware threats. Click on the corresponding links to check SpyHunter’s EULA and Privacy Policy

1. Hit the ⇧+⌘+U keys to open Utilities. Another way is to click on “Go” and then click “Utilities”, like the image below shows:

2. Find Activity Monitor and double-click it:

3. In the Activity Monitor look for any suspicious processes, belonging or related to Defray:

Tip: To quit a process completely, choose the “Force Quit” option.

4. Click on the "Go" button again, but this time select Applications. Another way is with the ⇧+⌘+A buttons.

5. In the Applications menu, look for any suspicious app or an app with a name, similar or identical to Defray. If you find it, right-click on the app and select “Move to Trash”.

6: Select Accounts, after which click on the Login Items preference. Your Mac will then show you a list of items that start automatically when you log in. Look for any suspicious apps identical or similar to Defray. Check the app you want to stop from running automatically and then select on the Minus (“-“) icon to hide it.

7: Remove any left-over files that might be related to this threat manually by following the sub-steps below:

  • Go to Finder.
  • In the search bar type the name of the app that you want to remove.
  • Above the search bar change the two drop down menus to “System Files” and “Are Included” so that you can see all of the files associated with the application you want to remove. Bear in mind that some of the files may not be related to the app so be very careful which files you delete.
  • If all of the files are related, hold the ⌘+A buttons to select them and then drive them to “Trash”.

In case you cannot remove Defray via Step 1 above:

In case you cannot find the virus files and objects in your Applications or other places we have shown above, you can manually look for them in the Libraries of your Mac. But before doing this, please read the disclaimer below:

Disclaimer! If you are about to tamper with Library files on Mac, be sure to know the name of the virus file, because if you delete the wrong file, it may cause irreversible damage to your MacOS. Continue on your own responsibility!

1: Click on "Go" and Then "Go to Folder" as shown underneath:

2: Type in "/Library/LauchAgents/" and click Ok:

3: Delete all of the virus files that have similar or the same name as Defray. If you believe there is no such file, do not delete anything.

You can repeat the same procedure with the following other Library directories:

→ ~/Library/LaunchAgents

Tip: ~ is there on purpose, because it leads to more LaunchAgents.

Click the button below below to download SpyHunter for Mac and scan for Defray:


SpyHunter for Mac

Step 3 (Optional): Try to Restore Files Encrypted by Defray.

Ransomware infections and Defray aim to encrypt your files using an encryption algorithm which may be very difficult to decrypt. This is why we have suggested a data recovery method that may help you go around direct decryption and try to restore your files. Bear in mind that this method may not be 100% effective but may also help you a little or a lot in different situations.

1. Download the reccomended Data Recovery software by clicking on the link underneath:

Simply click on the link and on the website menus on top, choose Data Recovery - Data Recovery Wizard for Windows or Mac (depending on your OS), and then download and run the tool.

Defray FAQ

What is Defray ransomware and how does it work?

Defray is a ransomware infection - the malicious software that enters your computer silently and blocks either access to the computer itself or encrypt your files.

Many ransomware viruses use sophisticated encryption algorithm how to make your files inaccessible. The goal of ransomware infections is to demand that you pay a ransom payment to get access to your files back.

How does Defray ransomware infect my computer?

Via several ways.Defray Ransomware infects computers by being sent via phishing e-mails, containing virus attachment.

This attachment is usually masked as an important document, like an invoice, bank document or even a plane ticket and it looks very convincing to users.

After you download and execute this attachment, a drive-by download occurs and your computer is infected with the ransomware virus.

Another way, you may become a victim of Defray is if you download a fake installer, crack or patch from a low reputation website or if you click on a virus link. Many users report getting a ransomware infection by downloading torrents.

How to open .Defray files?

You can't. At this point the .Defray files are encrypted. You can only open them once they are decrypted.

Decryptor did not decrypt my data. What now?

Do not panic and backup the files. If a decryptor did not decrypt your .Defray files successfully, then do not despair, because this virus is still new.

One way to restore files, encrypted by Defray ransomware is to use a decryptor for it. But since it's a new virus, advised that the decryption keys for it may not be out yet and available to the public. We will update this article and keep you posted as soon as this decryptor is released.

How Do I restore ".Defray" files (Other Methods)?

Yes, sometimes files can be restored. We have suggested several file recovery methods that could work if you want to restore .Defray files.

These methods are in no way 100% guarantee that you will be able to get your files back. But if you have a backup, your chances of success are much greater.

How do I get rid of Defray ransomware virus?

The safest way and the most efficient one for the removal of this ransomware infection is the use a professional anti malware software. It will scan for and locate Defray ransomware and then remove it without causing any additional harm to your important .Defray files.

Also, keep in mind that viruses like Defray ransomware also install Trojans and keyloggers that can steal your passwords and accounts. Scanning your computer with an anti-malware software will make sure that all of these virus components are removed and your computer is protected in the future.

What to Do If nothing works?

There is still a lot you can do. If none of the above methods seem to work for you, then try these methods:

  • Try to find a safe computer from where you can can login on your own line accounts like One Drive, iDrive, Google Drive and so on.
  • Try to contact your friends, relatives and other people so that they can check if they have some of your important photos or documents just in case you sent them.
  • Also, check if some of the files that were encrypted it can be re-downloaded from the web.
  • Another clever way to get back some of your files is to find another old computer, a flash drive or even a CD or a DVD where you may have saved your older documents. You might be surprised what will turn up.
  • You can also go to your email account to check if you can send any attachments to other people. Usually what is sent the email is saved on your account and you can re-download it. But most importantly, make sure that this is done from a safe computer and make sure to remove the virus first.

More tips you can find on our forums, where you can also asks any questions about your ransomware problem.

How to Report Ransomware to Authorities?

In case your computer got infected with a ransomware infection, you can report it to the local Police departments. It can help authorities worldwide track and determine the perpetrators behind the virus that has infected your computer. Below, we have prepared a list with government websites, where you can file a report in case you are a victim of a cybercrime:

Cyber-security authorities, responsible for handling ransomware attack reports in different regions all over the world:

Reports may be responded to in different timeframes, depending on your local authorities.

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